The 21 Turncoat GIs:
Nonrepatriates and the
Political Culture of the Korean War

FOOTNOTES:

(1) Edward Hunter, Brain-Washing in Red China (New York, 1953), foreword.

(2) "Communist Brainwashing--Are We Prepared?" New Republic, 8 June 1953, 5-6.

(3) "The Prisoners," Commonweal, 16 October 1953, 29.

(4) "One Who Won't Return," Time, 26 October 1953, 27; "Case Histories of Those 21: What Their Lives Show," Newsweek, 18 January 1954, 52-57; Virginia Pasley, 21 Stayed (New York, 1955).

(5) "Korea: The Sorriest Bunch," Newsweek, 8 February 1954, 40.

(6) "Race POWs Stay With Communists," Pittsburgh Courier, 2 January 1954, 1.

(7) William A. Ulman, "The GIs Who Fell for the Reds," Saturday Evening Post, 6 March 1954, 64.

(8) "Korean Puzzle: Americans Who Stay," U.S. News & World Report, 9 October 1953, 38.

(9) New York Times, 28 September 1953, 32; Ruth Cowan, More Work for Mother. The Ironies of Household Technology from the Open Hearth to the Microwave (New York, 1983), 189; Philip Wylie, Generation of Vipers (New York, 1955), 199, 215.

(10) Wylie, Generation of Vipers, xii, Michael Rogin, Ronald Reagan, the Movie, and Other Episodes in Political Demonology (Berkeley, 1987), 242-43.

(11) Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique (New York), 1963, 1983), 189.

(12) Ulman, "GI's Who Fell for the Reds," 64.

(13) "Korea: The Sorriest Bunch," 40.

(14) Arthur Schlesinger, The Vital Center (Cambridge, Mass., 1949, 1962), cited by Gary Wills, Nixon Agonistes (Boston, 1970), 574.

(15) Senior Scholastic, 6 January 1954, 3.

(16) R. L. Prattis, "Fear of God Kept Me Free of Joining Up With Communists," Pittsburgh Courier, 31 October 1953, 7.

(17) William Z. Foster, Daily Worker, 1 October 1953, 4.

(18) Edith Nourse Rogers, Congressional Record (hereafter CR), 83d Cong., 1st sess., 1953, 99, pt. 4: 4715; Eugene J. McCarthy, CR, 83d Cong., 1st sess., 1953, 99, pt. 4: 4819.

(19) The Nation, 23 May 1953, 425.

(20) Thomas J. Lane, CR, 83d Cong., 1st sess., 1953, 99, pt. 11: A3535.

(21) William C. Cole, "American Communist POWs in Korea," CR, 83d Cong., 2d sess., 1954, 100, pt. 1: 611.

(22) Robert C. F. Sikes, "Former Red Sympathizers in the Armed Forces," CR, 83d Cong., 2d sess., 1954, 100, pt. 1: 735.

(23) "U.S. To Discharge 21 Pro-Red GIs," New York Times, 26 January 1954, 1.

(24) Ibid.

(25) "Army Challenged on P.O.W. Charges," New York Times, 24 January 1954, 1.

(26) Rear Admiral D. V. Gallery, "We Can Battle the Brainwashers," Saturday Evening Post, 22 January 1955, 98.

(27) Haydon L. Boatner, Saga, August 1963, 81, box 1, "Koje" file, Boatner Papers, Hoover Institution, Stanford, Cal.

(28) Boatner, American Legion Magazine, August 1962, 39, box 2, Boatner Papers.

(29) "Education of Prisoners of War on Koje Island, Korea," Educational Record 36 (April 1955): 157-73.

(30) Ibid.

(31) Ulman, "GI's Who Fell for the Reds," 18.

(32) "New Code Orders P.O.W.'s to Resist in `Brainwashing,'" New York Times, 18 August 1955, 8.

(33) "P.O.W.: The Fight Continues after the Battle," A Report by the Secretary of Defense's Advisory Committee on Prisoners of War (Washington, 29 July 1955), v; "New Code Orders P.O.W.'s to Resist," 8.

(34) "Why Did Many Captives Cave In?," US News and World Report, 24 February 1956, 56-72; Edgar H. Schein, "The Chinese Indoctrination Program for Prisoners of War: A Study of Attempted `Brainwashing,'" Psychiatry 19 (1956): 160 (emphasis in original).

(35) Sidney Gottlieb, testimony before Senate Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, S. 1893, Human Drug Testing by the CIA, 1977, 95th Cong., 1st sess., 20 and 21 September 1977, 206.

(36) Senate Subcommittee on Health, Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, Joint Hearings on Human-Use Experimentation Programs of the Department of Defense and CIA and S. 2515, Examination of Public Policy of Bio-Medical and Behavioral Research, 94th Cong., 1st sess., 12 September and 7 November 1975, 1005-1132.

(37) Pasley, 21 Stayed, 183.

(38) Morris R. Wills and J. Robert Moskin, Turncoat: An American's 12 Years in Communist China (Englewood Cliff, N. J., 1966), 47.

(39) Morris R. Wills, Utica, N.Y., telephone interview by author, 10 June 1991.

(40) WillS interview; Wills and Moskin, Turncoat, 47.

(41) Pasley, 21 Stayed, 133.

(42) Clarence Adams, Memphis, Timm, telephone interview by author, 2 June 1991.

(43) Wills interview; Emmanuel John Hevi, The Dragon's Embrace: The Chinese Communists and Africa (New York, 1967).

(44) Otho Bell, Walla Walla, Wash., telephone interview by author, 1 June 1991.

(45) Quoted in Henry R. Lieberman, "3 Turncoats, Out of China, Condemn Communist `Hell,'" York Times, 10 July 1955, 1.

(46) Wills and Moskin, Turncoat, 7-8.

(47) Carl Sandburg, prefatory note to Pasley, 21 Stayed.

(48) Robert Jay Lifton, M.D., Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism: A Study of "Brainwashing" in China (New York, 1961), 3-5.

(49) Michael Paul Rogin, Ronald Reagan, the Movie, xiii-xiv, 272-81; Stephen J. Whitfield, The Culture of the Cold War (Baltimore, 1991), 5-6.

(50) Mickey Spillane, One Lonely Night (New York, 1951), cited by Stephen J. Whitfield, The Culture of the Cold War, 36.

(51) Richard Condon, The Manchurian Candidate, from The Two-Headed Reader (New York, 1959).

Adam J. Zweiback is a Ph.D. candidate at the University of California, San Diego.

© 1998 Phi Alpha Theta, History Honor Society, Inc.

The Historian, Winter 1998, Reprinted with special thanks to
Phi Alpha Theta, History Honor Society, Inc.
http://www.phialphatheta.org and http://www.aiipowmia.com