Korean War Unknowns

"LAST RITES PENDING

America's Korean War 'Unknowns' ...Buried Twice, Not Home Yet

They died in Korea, in combat or POW camps, and their bodies were handed over by the Communists after the war.

In 1956 they were re-buried in Hawaii and their families were never told the Army had name-associations but couldn't make formal identificaton.

First it was because of missing dental records.

Then it was a St. Louis fire that destroyed Korean War personnel files.

Now it's a mysterious chemical the government says is preventing the extraction of DNA from their bones.   America can't seem to bring its Korean War 'Unknowns' all the way home.

By Laurence Jolidon Copyright @ Ink-Slinger Press   (Posted 9 Sept. 2000)

In late January 1956,  some 867 flag-draped caskets - America's "unknowns" from the Korean War - were shipped from Japan aboard the USS Manchester to Hawaii and interred in a group burial at the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific.

The ceremonies, little noted in the press, were kept deliberately low-key to avoid what an Army directive called "unfavorable publicity" about an "extremely sensitive" subject.

For the past 44 years, those ceremonies have achieved just what the government intended. Few questions have been raised about the sizable number of caskets entombed in Honolulu, even while the families of more than 8,100 men who didn't return from Korea searched desperately for any scrap of information about their loved ones' fate.

Since they were buried, beneath a stately, white edifice set in the crater of an extinct volcano (thus the nickname given by veterans, "the Punchbowl"),  science has made extraordinary advances in using human DNA to establish identities; but those families have learned little, while the government has preferred to focus instead on obtaining thousands of remains that lie buried, most of them still inaccessible, in North Korea.

But their quiet burial and long anonymity - on U.S. soil, to be sure, but in a distant place of honor that some veterans and families of Korean War MIAs still don't know exists - have also shielded a sad and inconvenient truth:

A great deal has always been known about America's Korean War "unknowns."

At least 239 of the caskets buried in Hawaii in 1956 contain remains that were among nearly 2,000 sets that Communist forces turned over in 1954 complete with names, military service numbers and burial information from North Korea that exactly matched U.S. records. (SEE LIST)

In three of the 239 cases, personal effects - a wallet, a wristwatch and a ring - even accompanied the tagged remains, which were received in "Operation Glory," a mutual but partial exchange of war dead at the 38th Parallel in September-October 1954.

(In Operation Glory, 15 months after a ceasefire and armistice-signing, the United Nations side delivered more than 14,000 bodies of North Korean and Chinese soldiers from graves in South Korea while accepting some 4,100 United Nations dead - 1,885 identified as Americans - exhumed from battlefield and prison camp graves in North Korea.

(The exchange was devised after it became clear that the plan outlined in the armistice agreement - calling for graves registration teams from each side to enter the other's territory  to retrieve their own dead - couldn't be carried out because neither side trusted the other enough to allow this.)

The figure of 239 "name-associated" Korean War cases is not from any specific official document - although such a document may well exist.  A Freedom of Information Act request for documents that disclose the names related to cases buried at the Punchbowl is pending with the Pentagon.

The names are those that match when official public data on individuals still listed as unaccounted for from Korea are compared with declassified military personnel and graves registration records, including shipping manifests of Operation Glory.

They include soldiers and Marines, blacks, caucasians, Native Americans, privates, non-commissioned officers and 15 officers, including Capt. Emil Kapaun, a highly-decorated Army chaplain from Kansas so revered by veterans who were prisoners of war with him that some mounted a campaign to have him declared a saint.

Eugene Kapaun, the chaplain's brother,  said he wished the government had informed the families of the receipt of the "name-associated" remains and all the other information they had when the exchange took place, in 1954.  "They never mentioned anything like that," he said. SEE PHOTOS

The majority of name-associated remains - more than 150 - were tagged "Pyoktong," indicating the Communists had exhumed them from graves at POW Camp 5, one of the largest of the dozens of camps that held thousands of UN prisoners and near  the town of Pyoktong on the Yalu River, the boundary between North Korea and China.

U.S. authorities have maintained over  the years that forensic specialists at the U.S. Army mortuary in Kokura, Japan, where Korean War casualties were processed until it was closed in March 1956, applied all procedures then available in efforts to make conclusive identification, but were stymied in hundreds of cases.

By then, the Army's graves registration units that performed the last tests on the Korean War unknowns had processed tens of thousands of war dead, from the U.S., South Korea and a dozen other countries with troops in the war,  while under-strength and battling very challenging conditions.

When Operation Glory began in September 1954, they faced great pressure to complete the massive task. The Army Quartermaster General's orders were to finish all work - on the nearly 4,200 cases from Operation Glory plus hundreds of UN remains evacuated during the war that were still unidentified - within 18 months.

The schedule was met.   But hundreds of cases were left unidentified. Officials say they were simply too difficult, and that no corners were cut, nor cases overlooked.

The anthropologists who ran the identification program at the Kokura mortuary "were really, really quite good," says Thomas D. Holland, a forensic anthropologist and chief scientist at the Central Identification Laboratory in Hawaii (CILHI), which inherited the data from the Kokura mortuary and where all work on recovered U.S. military remains is now conducted.

The main problem that prevented final identification in 1954, he says, echoing what other officials have maintained, was the absence of adequate medical data, particularly dental records. Korean War-era military dental records "weren't very detailed," he says.

Military archives and correspondence shared by MIA relatives appear to bear out that point. U.S. military officials wrote letters in the mid-1950s to some families of men missing from Korea asking them to forward private dental records to assist in forensic work on recovered remains.

How much this effort accomplished is unclear. Some family members who received the requests say they were sceptical from the outset of government intentions, and doubted how useful pre-induction civilian records would be since dental inspection and work are routinely performed in the first weeks of military service

Burial of hundreds of "unknowns" from the Army's Kokura mortuary ended efforts to identify them.   They were disturbed only once.  In May 1958, four were removed as nominees for the Tomb of the Unknowns in Arlington National Cemtery.  After one was chosen, the others were re-buried.

And the issue of identifying Korean War remains went into storage along with boxes of classified information about the 8,100 men still missing.

In the intervening years, while no further work was done on the 866 left buried in Hawaii, U.S. forensic experts at CILHI have tried to identify other remains more recently exhumed in North Korea. In fact, negotiating with North Korea for remains still in that country's custody has taken precedence over virtually every other aspect of the Korean War POW/MIA issue.

The first postwar cases received by the CILHI laboratory were turned over beginning in 1990 by the North Koreans in return for millions of dollars that U.S. officials strained to define as "expenses" for North Korea's trouble.  The money was in addition to the increased diplomatic standing the Pyongyang government believed it was achieving by dealing with members of the U.S. Congress and other official emissaries.

Washington's main goal was to add North Korea to the list of countries (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia) that allow U.S. joint recovery teams to do their own excavations to recover remains.

Since 1996, under agreements laboriously renegotiated and renewed annually, some of CILHI's 13 joint recovery teams have traveled to North Korea several times a year.  They have been allowed to dig in a single location north of Pyongyang while under armed guard by North Korean troops.

The ratio of success over the past decade has been very low:   only five of the 208 excavated unilaterally by North Korea (which a CILHI analysis described as a "mess" of commingled and damaged bones that were shorter and older than the average U.S. soldier in Korea) were finally identified, and only a handful of the 60-70 exhumed in the past five years by U.S. teams.

Compounding the problem of poor wartime records, CILHI officials say, was a 1973 fire at a military records repository in St. Louis that officials say decimated Korean War personnel files.  Dental X-rays, charts and diagrams for Korean War veterans are "virtually absent" because of the St. Louis fire, according to one federal report.

"About 90-plus percent of the original Korea (personnel) records were burned," says Holland. "What we're dealing with now are transcribed copies, which have even less detail than the original records."

But in the 1990s, the technique of using DNA to determine human identity came into prominence, holding out great promise for the next chapter in the saga of Korean War remains.

The new technology requires only a microscopic amount of DNA from a bone and a small blood sample from a relative to establish identity.  When it can be applied, it is virtually foolproof, and a handful of Korean War cases - two so far this year - have been resolved thanks to DNA.

But it's far from a magic bullet.  The major problems:

1.  Not enough blood sample.  A publicity campaign run by the Pentagon's POW/MIA agency urges relatives of Korean War MIAs to submit samples, but so far only about 1,000 are on file, leaving more than 7,000 out of the available pool.

2.  An aging cohort of survivors. The youngest Korean War veterans are in their 60s. Finding mothers, sisters or even daughters grows increasingly difficult.

And inadequate dental records remain a stumbling block.
"If we get a skeleton," says Holland, "and take DNA, we can't just match it to everybody who's missing and see who it matches."  The candidates must be narrowed down to five or ten individuals, and that requires dental and other records.

Thus, DNA is only sometimes an option for newly excavated remains brought back from North Korea.  For those 866 cases buried at the Punchbowl in Hawaii, the outlook is even bleaker.

Until 1999,  there was no plan to employ DNA on the Punchbowl remains at all.  Two events changed that: in 1997, DNA tests on the Vietnam War remains buried in the Tomb of the Unknowns at Arlington were determined to be Air Force Lt. Michael Blassie, and returned to his family; and in July 1998, the Pentagon received a formal request from a Korean War family member seeking to have the hundreds of Korean War "unknowns" group exhumed and tested using DNA.

The request was filed by Robert Dumas, the brother of Army Cpl. Roger A. Dumas, a Korean War POW who was never repatriated.  His motivation wasn't personal.  He doesn't think his brother is one of the "unknowns" buried in Hawaii (and Roger Dumas was not on the Operation Glory manifests.)

"I believe my brother Roger's still a prisoner" in North Korea or China, says Dumas.  "But it's not right for the Pentagon to keep silent about these men in the Punchbowl.  They've known for a long time who those men are. They should finally do the right thing and finish the job and send them home to their families.  After all, it's been nearly 50 years."

The plan CILHI devised to deal with the Punchbowl remains calls for incremental steps. "The idea," says Holland, "was that we weren't going to dig up 866 men and put them on a shelf in the laboratory."  The plan was to "start slowly," he said, by ranking the cases in order based on the likelihood of identification, and disinterring the top two.   Once those were identified, two more would be brought to the lab, and so on until all were tested using DNA.

When the plan was first made public, POW/MIA groups angrily complained that at this rate, the 866 cases wouldn't be resolved until long after most immediate survivors were gone.  CILHI's director, Johnnie Webb, said it couldn't be done any faster because his staff includes only four "board-certified" or doctorate-trained forensic anthropologists.

But before long, even the slow-paced Punchbowl plan hit another wall.

On Nov. 19 last year, Webb told a family outreach gathering in Houston that government scientists were having difficulty extracting DNA from the first two Punchbowl remains, which had been disinterred two months earlier, on Sept. 15.

Webb said the Korean War remains had been treated with "a great deal of powdered formaldehyde" that he said was suspected of "inhibiting" the extraction of DNA.  He said they had tried both bone and teeth samples.

"We're having some success extracting the DNA from the teeth, but we're not there yet.  I have some optimism that we'll be able to identify the two individuals but it's more difficult than we'd anticipated."

In an interview on Aug. 25th, a year after the remains were disinterred,, Holland said the situation persists.  Zero progress has been made on the Punchbowl remains.

"There's something that's inhibiting the DNA," he said. "It's binding the DNA up and it's not allowing us to extract DNA from the bone."  He said the remains interred in the Punchbowl were evidently "treated with some chemicals" that are blocking the DNA-extraction process.  But he doesn't know which chemicals were applied when, nor how to counter them.

Holland said the CILHI staff and other Army scientists are working on the problem.  But he doesn't know when it might be solved.

"We're going back and looking at all the original records from the mortuary from 1954 and trying to find out what did they do to these skeletons and how can we get around whatever was done."   He said he's tracked down a retired Kokura mortuary worker he hoped would have a clue, but to no avail.

"We're not dead-ended," he said, "it's just not going as smoothly as everyone had hoped."

Assuming the DNA-extraction problem can be solved, " we'll be able to get back on schedule, which under ideal circumstances you'd be looking at a couple of months per case."
The resulting arithmetic isn't favorable for the Korean War's unlucky "unknowns."

Two months per case for 866 cases means the work will take 1,732 months, or about 144 years. And that assumes it's possible to find maternal-line relatives from the families involved  to supply blood samples.

Of course, if all four forensic anthropologists at CILHI were put to work on the task simultaneously, that could be reduced to a mere 36 years.

Eugene Kapaun said that last year, at the Army's suggestion, he submitted two vials of blood to be used for any eventual DNA testing on remains that might be his brother's. But he said  the colonel he talked to "told me I shouldn't get my hopes up."

That would certainly be sound advice from the record so far."

Reprinted with permission.

LIST OF NAME-ASSOCIATED KOREAN WAR CASES IN PUNCHBOWL

Note About the Punchbowl List:
In all but 19 of these cases, data from Operation Glory manifests matched U.S. records to the letter. In those 19 the differences were minor, such as a transposed number or a typo in a name ("Porer" instead of Porter; "Dudmund" not Gudmund; "Robillaid" for Robillard.) Official manifests gave names, service numbers, burial site or map grid coordinates and in some cases nationality for nearly 1,900 Americans, 29 British and 25 Australian soldiers. The manifest included no Army service number for Cpl. William H. Doss but no others by that name appear on U.S. Korean War casualty lists. 

(KEY -  NK Burial Site Abbreviations: PK - Pyoktong; CH - Changsong; IS - Isolated Site; PG - Pyongyang; YU - Yudam-ni; KO - Koto-ri; HU - Hungnam; JO - Jonchang; PH - Pukchong. Remains accompanied by # - Wristwatch; ## - Ring;  ### - Wallet.)

Name - NK Burial Site - Rank - Serial Number - Unit - Hometown - Status

ADAMS, Harry L.  CH Cpl  ER31362959 B Co 39th Inf Sherman KS  POW

ALES, Marion L. PK 1Lt 0-1185534     HS Co 2nd Engr Pierce, WA   POW

ANDINO-PEREZ, Emiliano CH   Pfc    ER30429512 A Co 65th Inf Puerto Rico PR  POW

ANDREWS, Leon E.  KO Cpl RA31402624  F Co 31st Inf Penobscot ME KIA

ARIAS, Lawrence L.  PK Sgt   RA39043501   H&S Co 2nd Engr  Virgin Islands POW

ARIONUS, Lyman H.  PK Cpl   RA17271343   H&S Co 2nd Engr  Beltrami MN POW

AVELINO, Domino T.  PK RA06737247 A Co 84th Engr Virgin Islands POW

BALL, Raymond O.  YU 1Lt O47727 USMC    E Co 2/7 Copley OH KIA

BART, Davey H.  PK Cpl RA18359023  8th Cav Regt Harris TX POW

BEHRINGER, Russell F.  PK MSgt   RA19217580 B Co 23rd Inf Solano CA POW

BELL, Vesteen  PK Pfc    RA18267349   C Co 24th Inf Tarrant TX POW

BISHOP, Lester E.  PK Cpl     RA12287542   I Co 19th Inf Jefferson NY POW

BLUE, George J.   PK Sgt     RA34654044     G Co 24th Inf Charleston NC POW

BOBOVNYK, James E. Cpl      RA15278950       B Co 2nd Engr Mahoning OH  POW

BONNER, William N.  PK Cpl     RA46062447 Med Co 8th Cav Chippewa MI POW

BOSTIC, David Jr.  CH Sgt     RA44167684  L Co 9th Inf Marlboro SC  POW

BOWSER, Roland L.  PK Pfc     RA13273179     M Co 8th Cav Westmoreland PA POW

BRANDT, Arnold N.   PK LtC      0-31955 KMAG 8668 AAU  Mower MN POW

BRIDGES, Anice Douglas  PK Sgt     RA14321504   HH Co 9th Inf Rankin MS POW

BROOKS, Clifton E.  PK Pfc      RA13344574      C Co 24th Inf Kent DE POW

BROWN, Robert E.  PK Cpl      RA14290324      E Co 8th Cav Orange FL POW

BROWN, William F.  PK Cpl     RA13227329       M Co 38th Inf Orange VA  POW

BRUCKER, Richard C. PK Cpl      US51060077  A Btry 38th FA New York NY   POW

BRYANT, Leroy W.  CH Pfc      US15237356   C Co 9th Inf Franklin OH  POW

BUCHANAN, Thomas N. IS Pfc  1074926 USMC   I Co 3/5 Santa Monica CA  MIA

BURDUE, Wayne H.  PK Maj  0-485664 HQ Evac Co 2 CMBT  Tacoma WA POW

BURNS, Peter J.  CH Cpl ER42200296  M Co 38th Inf Ulster NY POW

BURROWS, John K.  PK 1Lt 0-2014447 L Co 8th Cav Bristol RI POW

BURTON, Robert C.  PK Cpl RA17275089    C Co 24th Inf Morgan IL POW

CALDWELL, Alvin O.  PK Sfc RA34324496    E Co 9th Inf Davidson TN  POW

CAMERON, Owen J.  PK Sfc RA31484267   D Co 2nd Engr Worcester MA POW

CAMPBELL, Jackie A.  CH Cpl RA15258660    A Btry 15th FA   Jefferson KY  POW

CARR, Thomas G.  PK Sfc RA52002437 M Co 38th Inf Belmont OH  POW

CHESNUT, Fred D.  PK Maj 0-45795 HQ Co 38th Inf San Diego CA   POW

CLARK, Harold  CH Pfc ER35368243  L Co 38th Inf Marion IN POW

CLARK, Keith K.  CH Pfc ER18301128  F Co 38th Inf Vernon LA POW

CLINKSCALE, Harold  CH Pfc RA14308169 K Co 9th Inf Mecklenberg NC  POW

CLOUTIER, Robert J.  PK Sgt RA16294371   Med Co 9th Inf Oakland MI POW

COLLINS, Edward H.  PK Sfc  US55005715   Med Co 9th Inf Adams WI POW

COON, Ellis   PK Sfc RA34482470  C Btry 503rd FA   Pike MI POW

COWAN, William W.  CH Pfc RA14317546   M Co 38th Inf Sumner TN POW

CRAYTON, Thomas  PK MSgt RA38457891 A Btry 503rd FA Travis TX POW

CULPEPPER, Bobby T.R.  PK Pfc   RA14312980 C Co 9th Inf Polk GA POW

DAMEWOOD, Louis A. CH Cpl   RA13174220 HQ Co 38th Inf Carroll MD POW

DAVENPORT, Curtis  PG Cpl RA15299678   B Btry 36th FA Hamilton OH  KIA

DAVIS, Finley J.  PK MSgt   RA33293511 D Co 2nd Engr Allegheny PA   POW

DAVIS, Richard J.  PK MSgt     RA33166340   K Co 8th Cav Indiana PA POW

DAVIS, Willie  PK Pvt RA38741871  Svc Btry 503rd FA    Jefferson LA POW

DAWSON, Wallace J. CH Cpl ER57634577 L Co 9th Inf Santa Barbara CA POW

DEWEY, Lee A.  CH Pfc RA16310000    A Btry 503rd FA Cook IL POW

DICKINSON, Matthew L. CH Pfc   US46084293 L Co 19th Inf Crawford IL POW

DIEKMAN, Harold F.  PK Cpl  RA16319898 B Co 35th Inf Winona MI POW

DIXON, Willie F. CH Cpl ER34325792     C Co 9th Inf Henderson TN   POW

DOSS, William H. PK Cpl RA12350120     Svc Co 31st Inf Columbia NY  MIA

DOUGHERTY, Bernard P. PK Cpl  RA13311109 HQ Btry 82nd AAA Schuylkill PA POW

DOUGLASS, William E. CH Cpl  RA21195155 G Co 38th Inf Cumberland MA POW

DYE, Richard   PK Sgt RA34270289  HQ Co 3/9th E. Carrol LA POW

FARFAN, Lawrence   CH Sgt RA19296320 B Btry 15th FA Alameda CA POW

FARRELL, William T.  PK Pfc RA13315508  C Btry 38th FA Cambria PA POW

FIELDS, Oliver M.  PG Sfc RA19315193  C Co 2nd Engr Teton MT KIA

FINK, James W.   PK Sfc RA33274347  HQ Co 9th Inf Clarion PA POW

FISH, William   YU Pfc 641384USMC   H Co 3/7 Baltimore MD  KIA

FISHER, R.J.  YU Pfc 508349USMC B Co 1/5 Worcester MA KIA

FONTENOT, Joseph W.  CH Cpl ER1827581 L Co 38th Inf Livingston LA  POW

FORD, James R.    PK Sgt RA57400731 D Co 24th Inf Smith TX POW

FORD, Wilbert   CH Sgt RA17233387   K Co 9th Inf St. Louis MO POW

FOX, Frank C.  PK Sgt RA57508920  B Btry 503rd FA St. Clair IL POW

FRISK, Robert D.   CH Cpl ER17208752   C Co 38th Inf Polk MN POW

GAITAN, Jimmie J.  CH Pfc RA18345456  CLR Co 2nd Med Bexar TX POW

GAMBLE, Calvin C.   CH Pfc RA15280368   E Co 19th Inf Stark OH POW

GANTT, Joseph E.   PK Sfc RA13072743   C Btry 503rd FA Los Angeles CA POW

GERRITY, Daniel W.  PK Pfc RA12328393   HH Btry 2nd DivArty  Kings NY POW

GEURIN, M. C. Jr.   PK Cpl RA15422880 HQ Btry 825th AAAW   Calloway KY POW

GIBSON, Willard M.   PK Sgt  RA16314737   E Co 9th Inf Sullivan IN MIA

GREEN, James L.  PK Pfc 1775542USMC   E Co 2/1 Freeport IL MIA

GREEN, Walter W.  PK Pvt RA15277062   E Co 8th Cav Union IL POW

GRIFFITHS, Jack D.   PK Capt  0-36376 HQ Co 38th Inf Comanche OK  POW

GRIFFORD, George W.  PK Cpl RA16315497   Svc Btry 37th FA Wayne MI POW

GROVES, Alva C.   PK Cpl RA13333571   D Co 38th Inf Marion WV POW

GUALTIERE, Daniel P. PK Pfc RA32724344  KMAG 8668 AAU Westchester NY POW

GUYNN, John E.   PK Cpl RA35902554 HM Co 19th Inf Huntington IN  POW

HACKENBERG, Walter C. CH Pfc  US52039785  F Co 35th Inf Snyder PA POW

HANDLEY, Danny J.  PK Pfc RA17275205     B Co 35th Inf St. Louis MO  POW

HARDMAN, Kester B.  PK Sgt  RA15288867  M Co 38th Inf Ritchie WV POW

HARDY, David E.   PK Sgt    RA14248813   HQ Btry 82nd AAAW Rockingham NC POW

HARGET, James   CH Sgt    RA16398430    C Co 38th Inf Alexander IL  POW

HARPER, William L.   CH Sgt     RA15274140    D Btry 82nd AAAW Greenbrier WV POW

HARRIS, Robert Louis   CH Cpl     RA18343402   B Btry 15th FA Tulsa OK POW

HART, Robert H.    CH Cpl    ER53009012 HH Co 38th Inf Conecuh AL POW

HATHAWAY, Andrew E.   PK Pfc RA26332214     K Co 35th Inf Winnebago IL  POW

HAUSER, Robert G.    IS Cpl    RA19213647     H Co 34th Inf San Francisco CA     MIA

HAYES, Randolph   PK Cpl    RA15378443     A Btry 38th FA Bronx NY POW

HAYNES, Otis Shelton Jr.  PK  # Sgt     866731USMC    B Co 1/5 San Antonio TX KIA

HEARD, Sam    PK Pfc    RA18350254    C Co 24th Inf Ouachita LA POW

HEILMAN, Ernest L.   CH Cpl    RA15294481    B Btry 15th FA Scioto OH POW

HELLEM, James W.   IS Pfc    643512USMC   Spt Co/1st SvBn Swansea SC  KIA

HELMAN, Glenwood    PK Pfc    RA13352682    A Co 9th Cav Schuylkill PA  POW

HENSON, Alfred Jr.   PK Sgt     RA14346257   HQ Btry 38th FA Robertson TN  POW

HIGGINS, Frederick A.  CH Cpl    RA19353835    Med Det 15th AAAW Kitsap WA POW

HINCKLEY, Homer   PK LtC    0-52289           HQ Co 9th Inf San Francisco CA POW

HOLMAN, John H. CH Pfc     ER37899407    D Co 38th Inf Goodhue MN  POW

HOLT, Claude D.   PK Sgt    RA19290095    HQ Co 9th Inf Stone MO POW

HOWARD, Joe W.   PK Cpl    RA44115530    A Btry 503rd FA Philadelphia PA  POW

HUBER, Ramon L.   PK Sfc    RA16275938    I Co 8th Cav York NE POW

HUFFMAN, Ronald C.  CH Pfc    RA13350814    K Co 38th Inf Mercer WV POW

HUME, Thomas A.   PK LtC    0-23931   HQ Co 37th FAB Muskegon MI  POW

HURT, Thomas E.   PK Sgt     RA14258195    G Co 7th Inf Madison TN  POW

ISBELL, Richard  PK Cpl    RA15284229     M Co 7th Inf Pike KY POW

JELNIKER, Raymond J.  PK Cpl      US55079272     E Co 160th Inf Jefferson CO   POW

JOHNS, Willie L.  PK Sgt     RA44186899    C Btry 503rd FA Allendale SC POW

JOHNSON, Gudmund C. PK Cpl     RA17260597    K Co 35th Inf Goodhue MN  POW

JOHNSON, John B.   CH Pfc     RA14313990    G Co 7th Inf Wilson NC POW

JOHNSON, Lewis H.  PK Cpl     RA33072271    K Co 8th Cav Philadelphia PA POW

JONES, Leroy  PK Pfc     RA15299575     C Co 24th Inf Hamilton OH POW

JONES, Wilbur G. Jr.  PK ,Capt    0-050863     AU KMAG 1542 Los Angeles CA POW

KAPAUN, Emil J.   PK Capt     0-558217  H&H Co 8th Cav Marion KS POW

KASARDA, Milton J.   PK Sgt      RA33976607    Med Co 38th Inf Luzerne PA  POW

KELLER, John C.   PK Sfc      RA12294271    K Co 3/8 lst Cav New York NY POW

KINDER, Arthur S. Jr.   PK Sfc      RA11170464    B Btry 38th FA Middlesex MA  POW

KIRKPATRICK, Ardell   CH Cpl     ER57401010      A Co 38th Inf Fannin TX POW

KITTLE, James J.   PK Cpl     RA13337665     HQ Btry 38th FA Harrison WV POW

KREPPS, Richard W.   PK Cpl     RA13272324     D Btry 82nd AAAW Westmoreland PA POW

LANDER, Lawrence E.   PK Sgt    RA15208600      HQ Co 3/9th Inf Vanderburgh IN POW

LANDY, Theodore   CH Cpl     RA33523735     A Btry 503rd FA Norfolk VA POW

LANIER, Claude    PK Sgt     RA13270847     B Btry 503rd FA Baltimore MD POW

LAWRENCE, Jack L.   PK Sgt     RA13148771    M Co 38th Inf Tyoga PA POW

LAZALDE, John C.   PK Sgt     RA19323864    B Co 35th Inf Fresno CA  POW

LEMASTER, James E.  PK Sgt     RA15421651     H&H Co 9th Inf Johnson KY  POW

LENON, Guss R.   IS Pfc    1065704USMC  E Co 2/7 Omaha NE KIA

LINGLE, William J.   PK Sgt    RA16309403     A Btry 38th FA Langlade WI POW

LIPSCOMB, William Jr.   PK Sgt   RA18297529      C Btry 503rd FA Lamar TX POW

LITTLE BEAR, Melvin   CH Pfc     RA17258384     A Btry 15th FA Corson SD  POW

LOCKETT, Isaac W. Jr.  PK Cpl    RA12313086     C Btry 503rd FA Hudson NJ  POW

LORD, Charles H.   PK Pfc    RA14328751      Svc Co 1st Tank Bn Marshalltown IA POW

LYNCH, Dan G.   IS ##  Sfc    RA18289371      C Co 38th Inf Le Flore OK POW

LYTLE, Jack W.   PK Sfc   RA15419203       HQ Btry 82nd AAAW Pierce WA POW

MALCOLM, Howard G.  PK Sgt    RA16307893      H&H Co 9th Inf Jefferson IL POW

MANN, James E.   IS Pfc    RA14342169      B Co 9th Inf Nash NC MIA

MARTINS, John   PK Cpl    RA11167933     HQ Btry 82nd AAAW Hampden MA POW

MASSEY, Anthony Jr.   PK Pfc    RA15381773     C Co. 24th Inf Graves KY POW

MAXWELL, Herbert R.   CH Pfc    RA57509059      B Co 38th Inf Adair MO  POW

McCALL, John H.   PK Sfc    RA15266475     H&H Co 3/9th Inf Cuyahoga OH POW

McCLELLAN, Maurice   PK Sgt   RA19335396     Med Co 9th Inf San Juan WA  POW

McDERMOND, Robert P. PK Cpl   RA13342860     K Co 8th Cav Cumberland PA POW

McGUINNESS, Clarence E.  IS 1Lt   37612USMC       H&S Co 3/7 Parkersburg WV KIA

McGUIRE, James P.   PK Sgt   RA12340472     B Co 2nd CM MTR Bn Essex NJ POW

McNEIL, Robert W.  CH Pfc   RA15356247     F Co 7th Inf Knox OH POW

MEYER, Albert W.   PK Sgt   RA32530970     Svc Btry 38th FA Oneida NY POW

MILLER, Kenneth R.   CH ,Pfc   US52007574      K Co 19th Inf Cuyahoga OH POW

MILLER, Wallace A.  PK Cpl    RA13313001     C Co 82nd AAAW Butler PA POW

MILLIGAN, Richard  CH Cpl    RA16320934     B Co 38th Inf Piatt IL POW

MISS, Ira V. Jr.   CH MSgt    RA43030950     HQ Co 3/38th Inf Frederick MD  POW

MOLENAAR, George   CH Sfc      ER16206246      I Co 38th Inf Cook IL  POW

MORRIS, David W.   PK Cpl     ER35145756      D Co 38th Inf Madison IN  POW

MOSS, Alonza   PK Cpl    RA14265236      C Co 24th Inf Jefferson AL POW

MOSS, William H.   PK Sfc    RA12285511      G Co 38th Inf Berkshire MA POW

MULDER, Delano B.  PK Cpl    RA17277707      A Btry 82nd AAAW Kingsbury SC POW

MULLINS, Thomas H.   PK Cpl    RA14323935      L Co 8th Cav Rhoane TN  POW

MUTTER, Gene   PK Cpl    RA19331046      A Btry 38th FA  SanBernardinoCA POW

NANCE, Robert C.   CH Cpl   RA18334456      D Btry 82nd AAAW Benton AR   POW

NEWTON, William A.   PK Cpl    RA17194911     H&H Svc Co 2nd Engr Scott MO  POW

NORDYKE, Elwyn D.   CH Sgt   RA19322551      HQ Co 7th Med Bn Pierce WA  POW

O'LEARY, James P.  PK Sgt    RA11183498      H&H Co 3/8th Cav Bristol MA  POW

OLSON, Arnold   JO Capt   0-48125 USMC  VMP513MAG12 BlkRvrFalls WI  POW

OLSON, Norman E.  PK MSgt    RA17244123      B Co 19th Inf Marshall MN      POW

PARKER, Gary N.  PK Cpl    RA14330724      K Co 38th Inf Cabarrus NC POW

PARKER, Harry J.  IS Pvt     RA34673500    I Co 24th Inf Wake NC   KIA

PARKS, Roy   CH Sgt    RA18333607   D Co 82nd AAAW St. Francis AR POW

PARSONS, Julian K.   PK Pfc    RA14320707   B Co 9th Inf Hardin TN  POW

PENCE, George A.  IS Pfc     812997USMC  B Co 1st Mt Bn Cecilia KY   KIA

PENNINGTON, Eugene  PK Sfc    RA19305176   HQ Btry 503rd FA Los AngelesCA POW

PERRY, John C.   PK Sfc    RA12250831  C Co 24th Inf Essex NJ  POW

PETERMAN, Herbert D.  PK Sgt    RA16309566    H Co 2/9th Inf Montcalm MI  POW

PETERSON, Fred A. Jr.   CH Pfc  US39773364    K Co 19th Inf FranciscoCA  POW

PETROFF, John Jr.   PK Sgt    RA19255403   D Co 38th Inf Hawaii  POW

PHELPS, Donald R.  PK MSgt   RA36167613   HQ Co 2nd Inf Muskegon MI   POW

PINNELL, Russell C.   PK Sfc    RA18337175    E Co 8th Cav Franklin MO   POW

PLESHEK, Roger W.  PK Pfc    RA27883246    B Co 31st Inf Menominee MI   POW

PORTER, Jasper M.   IS ,Sgt   RA25262013    M Co 31st Inf Shelby TN  MIA

\REESE, Kenneth F.  IS Cpl   RA14330669    C Btry 34th FA Gaston NC   MIA

REID, Alexander   PK Sgt    RA13308650    C Co 9th Inf .Allegheny PA  POW

REYNOLDS, Theodore A.  PK Cpl    RA12118964      B Co 2nd CM MTR Bn Oneida NY POW

RHINE, Vernon  PK Cpl    RA13317346  B Co 2nd Engr Indiana PA  POW

RICHARDSON, Glen C.  PK Sgt     RA17260602     D Btry 82nd AAAW Goodhue MN  POW

RIESS, Paul E.  IS MSgt    RA33311356 Med Co 9th Inf Los Angeles CA KIA

RINES, Raymond S.   PK Pfc    RA14297223  Med Co 9th Inf Jefferson TN   POW

RIVERS, John E.  PK Cpl    RA34018258   B Co 2nd CM MTR Bn Chatham GA  POW

ROBERTS, Gordon A.  PK MSgt   RA13021495  L Co 8th Cav HuntingdonPA  POW

ROBILLARD, Joseph A.   PK Pfc    RA21631021 Sv Btry 38th FA Hillsboro NH  POW

ROGERS, Lloyd G.   PK Pfc    RA17093165  2nd Sig Co 2d Inf Laramie WY POW

ROHR, Paul L.   PK Sgt    RA16225791  C Co 9th Inf Schuylkill PA  POW

ROPER, Chester J.  PK Cpl   RA13288397   A Btry 503rd FA Allegheny PA  POW

ROSS, Harold L.   IS Pfc   1112597USMC HQ Btry 2/11 Gardenville NY  KIA

RUGGERO, Ciro J.   CH Cpl   ER16287848    L Co 38th Inf Cook IL  POW

RYAN, Vincent M.   PK Cpl   RA19334575   Med Co 9th Inf Weber UT  POW

SANDOVAL, Frank L.  CH Cpl   RA18223314   A Btry 15th FA Bexar TX  POW

SAYRE, Herbert G.  PK Sgt   RA13331408   B Co 2nd Engr Mason WV  POW

SEARLE, Delbert G.   IS Cpl   RA12348964   HQ Btry 57th FA` Delaware NY MIA

SHAW, James P.   CH Pfc   RA44146308   G Co 7th Inf Holmes FL  POW

SHAW, Ralph L.   PK Sgt   RA45034328   L Co 8th Cav Taylor WV  POW

SIDNEY, Alfred H.   CH Sgt   ER11129261   H Co 23rd Inf Stafford NH  POW

SIMMONS, Leon F.   PK Sgt    RA33053343  C Btry 503rd FA Philadelphia PA POW

SLOAN, Harold  PK Sgt   RA13275388  HS Co 2nd Engr AnneArundel MD POW

SMITH, Joseph W.   PK 1Lt   0-2262370   B Co 35th Inf Essex NJ  POW

SOLEM, Joseph J.   PK MSgt   RA17244794    HQ Btrt 82nd AAA McCook SD  POW

SPITZER, Everett W.   PK Cpl   RA17257872    HQ Co 9th Inf Buena Vista IA  POW

STEINLE, Robert E.   PK Cpl   RA15271613    HQ Btry 82nd AAAW Shelby OH   POW

STEWART, Roy   PK Cpl   RA14054453    A Co 9th Inf Hinds MS POW

STURM, Donald R.   PK Sfc   RA16235126   C Co 19th Inf Scott MO MIA

TAYLOR, John J.  CH Cpl   RA57100291  Med Co 5th Inf Suffolk MA  POW

TEAGUE, James W.  PK Sgt   RA14341889  L Co 35th Inf NC  POW

TEETERS, Joseph L.   PK Pfc   RA35788902   HH Co 83rd Engr Hamilton OH  POW

TERRELL, Benjamin F.  CH Cpl   RA33120934   A Co 9th Cav Fairfax VA POW

THOMSON, Thomas L. Jr. YU 1Lt    0-31128 USMC D Co 2/7 Detroit MI            KIA

TOLER, Robert S.   PK Sgt   RA16265475    A  Btry 503rd FA Wayne MI  POW

TRAVERS, Joseph R.   CH Pfc  US51000431   D Co 5th Inf Bristol MA POW

TRUELOVE, Bobby L.   PK Pfc   RA14324068   5th Regt 1st Cav Washington TN POW

TUTTLE, Allen H.  PK Sgt RA19261249   38th FA King WA  POW

VAUGHN, Aubrey D. CH Pfc   RA14369506    C Co 5th Inf Union SC  POW

VAUGHN, Cleveland Jr. PK Sgt    RA63136025     I Co 24th Inf Baltimore MD   POW

VICKERY, Roy M.  PK Cpl    RA37777268     C Co 2nd Engr Allemakee IA     POW

WALKER, Donald M.  HU Pfc   1125896USMC  Svc Co 1st SvBn Louisville KY KIA

WALLACE, Earl Jr. PK Cpl   RA13204582    C Co 24th Inf   llegheny PA POW

WARD, John L.   HU Pfc    1074538USMC  H&S Co 2/7 Utica NY KIA

WATSON, Leonard S.   CH Sgt   ER37107127   L Co 38th Inf  Pushmataha OK POW

WEST, Carl A.   HU Pfc   1013081USMC Wpns Co 1/7 AmandaPark WA KIA

WHITE, Charles A. CH Cpl    RA15296548    G Co 7th Inf Perry OH  POW

WHITE, Delbert L.   PK Cpl    RA17258087    D Co 2nd Engr Wapello IA  POW

WILLIAMS, Charles O.   PK Cpl    RA18281701    D Co 2nd Engr Pittsburg OK POW

WILLIAMS, James O.   IS ## Cpl    RA19295478  H&H Co 9th Inf Alameda CA MIA

WILLIAMSON, Bennie M.  PK Sgt    RA15421841 Svc Btry 38th FA Pike KY POW

WILSON, Elmer T.  PK Cpl    RA18223509   L Co 38th Inf Real TX  POW

WING, Richard L. PK Cpl    RA15284341    H Co 5th Cav Lucas OH POW

WRIGHT, Benjamin H. Jr.  PK Sgt    RA14245974   A Co 38th Inf Hawaii POW

WRIGHT, Robert J.   PK Pfc   RA13351634    G Co 38th Inf Bland VA POW

WRIGHT, Robert L.   PK Cpl    RA17261537  H&H Co 82nd AAA Jackson MO POW

YDE, Erik F. CH Capt   0-038396 HQ Co 503rd FA San Francisco CA POW

ZIDELSKI, William F PK Cpl RA32338022 L Co 31st Inf New York NY POW

ZOELLICK, William M. PK Cpl RA26268528 B Co 9th Inf Des Plaines IL POW